TECHNOLOGY

Our cutting-edge liquefaction technology and innovative zero-loss technology offers the industry's premier hydrogen storage and refueling solutions. 

Liquid Hydrogen

 

Hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant element on Earth.  It is colorless, tasteless, and odorless.  It can burn with oxygen to release large amounts of energy.  Hydrogen has a high energy content by weight and a low energy density by volume at standard temperature and atmospheric pressure. Hydrogen is an attractive solution as a fuel because it can be produced from, and converted to, electricity with high efficiencies, and be transported and stored as safely as any other fuel. One of the fundamental attractions of hydrogen is its environmental advantage over fossil fuels.

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Hydrogen compared with other fuels

The only disadvantage to using hydrogen is its low volumetric energy density. Like any other gas, the volumetric density can be drastically lowered by storing compressed hydrogen under pressure or converting it to liquid hydrogen. However, the compressed hydrogen has a risk due to high pressure, and the energy density does not increase as much as expected. The storage weight of the compressed hydrogen is heavy to transport. On the other hand, Liquid hydrogen is safer since it stores at atmospheric pressure and has better efficiency in terms of volumetric energy density than compressed hydrogen. Liquid hydrogen is the best option for transportation since it has about 850 times higher density than gaseous hydrogen and can store 10 times more than compressed hydrogen.

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Storage Density of Hydrogen

(Source: ILK Dresden, Moritz Kuhn, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons)

Hydrogen is the only alternatives for future energy. Hydrogen can use energy transfer material instead of fossil fuel such as coal and oil, due to high energy density and long storage. Liquid hydrogen has a higher density and fewer potential risks in terms of storage pressure compared with the compressed gas. However, hydrogen liquefies at −252.9°C (−423°F) and thus the storage vessels require cryogenic systems and sophisticated insulation techniques.

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Liquid hydrogen characteristics

H2Prime has accumulated extensive experience on various hydrogen liquefaction plant designs for decades. Recently, H2Prime has successfully developed novel designs to ensure best-in-class performance and reliability. H2Prime liquefiers are safe, compact, stackable, modular, deployable, and mass-producible to lower CAPEX and OPEX.

Compressed Hydrogen Tank vs.
Liquid Hydrogen Tank

 

A typical highly compressed hydrogen storage tank contains around 5 kg of hydrogen in ~120 kg of a composite storage tank. Its gravimetric ratio of storage tank versus hydrogen is 24:1. It means one needs 24kg of the storage tank to store 1 kg of hydrogen! How inefficient a way of storing hydrogen it can be! Inefficient hydrogen storage and transport would be one of the biggest hurdles in expanding hydrogen infrastructure.

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Tank Weight Comparison Compressed vs. Liquid

The inefficiency of compressed 350 and 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks becomes worse and even worrisome as large scale hydrogen storage capacity requirement increases. Then, how could we properly respond to large capacity hydrogen in MTPA (million tonnes per annual) hydrogen economy soon? What if the above ratio can be reduced to less than 10: 1 or even lower? How? The only answer would be the safest and the most efficient LH2 storage. LH2 storage tank can increase storage efficiency by a factor of 2 or higher than compressed hydrogen storage. By the way, do you know LH2 storage tank pressure is almost atmospheric pressure? Lighter, safer, and more capacity..

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Strong market needs for the ultralight yet high-efficiency LH2 storage tank become higher as hydrogen demand rapidly increases in particular in hydrogen mobility application. Hydrogen storage in liquid form turns out to be the most effective format to support Fuel Cell powered hydrogen mobility applications such as FC cars, trucks, and even aerial vehicles.

Liquid hydrogen value chain

Liquid hydrogen value chain

Source: California Fuel Cell Partnership

In 2021, H2Prime has upgraded the previous design to the 2nd generation ultralight LH2 tank that is not limited to only aerial application. The design is widely applicable to ultralight hydrogen drones, Urban Aerial Mobility, hydrogen aviation,  LH2 tank lorries, LH2 transporter ships, and even large-scale ground storage for Fuel Cell power generation plants. Innovative Zero-Loss technology is employed to provide safe and cost-efficient hydrogen energy storage solutions for land, sea, aerial, space, residential, and industrial applications.